Lifanov K. Problem Units of the Phonological System in the Slovak Literary Language
The article discusses the fate of the problem units of the phonological system in the Slovak literary language. These are the vocal phoneme [ä] and the consonant phoneme [ľ], that have significant similarities in their history in the new literary language, but different final results. Both of these phonemes were not codified by Ľ. Štúr for various reasons, but were simultaneously introduced into the literary language in the compromise “Brief Slovak grammar” of 1852. The Fixing both phonemes in the literary language was initially difficult, but the phoneme [ä] was accustomed with great success, as in spelling the letter denoting its quickly began to be used in accordance with the codification, and the corresponding sound became a sign of stage pronunciation. Later on, however, this process stopped and the sound [ä] as well as the corresponding phoneme happened to be lost. We are currently witnessing the final phase of this process. The phoneme fixation of [ľ] in the Slovak literary language went on unevenly under the influence of spelling. Currently, the norm of the pronunciation [ľ] is in the position of the absolute end of the word, before the consonant and before the vowel of the non-front row, in which softness is indicated on the letter, and the pronunciation [l] is before the vowels of the front row and i-shaped diphthongs, where softness is not indicated by a special sign. The norm, however, differs significantly from the current codification, which requires the pronunciation [ľ] in both cases.
phoneme, grapheme, codification, stage pronunciation, spelling, position
Mitevski V. Virago (Woman-Warrior) in Byzantine and Macedonian Epic Poetry
1. In traditional Indo-European poetry, the man (hero) is central and independent, while a womanʼs character, as a rule, is associated with the man – as hero’s mother, hero’s wife etc. The exception of this rule is the woman warrior (virago) – the only one who steps forward as autonomous and independent character.
2. In the most known Byzantine Epic of Digenes Akritas, apart from everyday female characters (mother, wife) who are dependent on the man, there is a typical virago character represented by the figure of the Amazon warrior Maximo. She was defeated in the duel with the main hero Digenes, but at the same time, she will seduce the hero, defeat and humiliate him morally, and he will eventually kill her because of that.
3. In Macedonian epic songs about the hero King Marko (collected in the 19th century) there is an occurrence of several female warrior characters who fight the main hero. The most suitable song for comparative analysis is the song Марко ја погубува невестата на Секула детенце (Marko Kills the Wife of Sekula the Kid) in which the typical virago is defeated in the duel with a man, she seduces her opponent and he marries her, but she is eventually killed by Marko because she inflicted him a humiliating defeat as a woman.
4. The character of virago in Byzantine and Macedonian epic poetry is probably shaped according to an identic archaic motif (thematic pattern), but regarding the ideas, it represents the tragic fate of the woman who in the heroic world of men tries to abandon the imposed norms of the community and to step forward as an independent human person.
epic poetry, woman-warrior, virago, Byzantine epics, Digenes Akritas, Macedonian epics, King Marko, duel, emancipation, the spirit of tragedy
Shchegoleva L.I. Greek-Slavonic Psalters of the Russian State Library, fond 173/I, No 8 and 9: Manuscripts and Texts
The paper deals with the two Greek-Slavonik interlinear Psalters from the Moscow Theological Academy, now in the Russian State library, f. 173/I, No 8 and 9. The codicological characteristic of the manuscripts is offered as well as their history. The illimination of the Psalter f. 173/I, No 9 is attributed to the well known book scriber Gavrila Basov. The manuscript f. 173/I, No 8 is dated to the 1640ies years. That is prooved that it is the copy of the manuscript f. 173/I, No 9. The peculiarites of the Greek texts transcription are revealed, the assumption is expressed that they were inherited from the protograph that has not been saved. The connection between the manuscripts f. 173/I, No 9 and RSL, f. 304/I, No 62 is established. The methods of the use of the new translation of the Psalter by Maxim the Greek in the text and in the glossae in the manuscripts f. 173/I, No 9 are revealed. The variae lectiones in the Psalter f. 173/I, No 9 and in the other copies of the Maxim’s Psalter translation are compared, the conclusion is made that no one of them presents the complete text of that translation.
Russian State Library, Greek manuscripts, interlinear Psalter, Slavonic translation, Maxim the Greek, Nil Kurliatev, Gavrila Basov
Korosteleva A.A. On the Functioning of Russian Communicative Level’s Means in Physician’s Speech (in the aspect of Russian as Foreign Language teaching)
The article offers an analysis of the communicative component in a physician’s speech, performed with the method of semantic communicative analysis on a film material. Thus the most important communicative means are listed in it and the implementations of their invariant parameters are given. An affiliation of the most frequent and relevant for the physician’s professional communication’s units to three communicative fields – the field of knowledge, the field of benefactivity and the field of personal sphere is revealed.
communicative semantics, spoken film dialogue, strategies of communicative behaviour, physician’s communicative strategy, Russian as a foreign language
Sergeev A. Genre of a Literary Fairy Tale in H.Ch. Andersen’s Creative Work
The article deals with Andersen’s innovativeness in literary fairy tale genre. Having passed a difficult road from revision of folklore sources to creation of new genre forms, Andersen turned the author’s fairy-tale into the universal type of literary work and opened the new possebilities of development a small narrative genre of the 20th century.
innovativeness, literary fairy tale, prospect of development
Communications and Materials
Klyuyeva T.V. Ways to Translate Russian Culinary Vocabulary in Marcus Wolfʼs Book “Geheimnisse der russischen Küche”
In this article are considered the methods of translation of Russian culinary terms into German.
realities, polysemantic names, non-equivalent lexical units, equivalents, analogical words, synonyms, regional and national doublets
Burmistova S.V. Functions of the Apostolic Text in Nikolay Gogolʼs “Selected Places from Correspondence with Friends”
The article deals with the peculiarities of the reception of the Apostolic text in the book of Gogol: the forms of its embodiment (quotations, allusions, reminiscences, etc.) and the mechanisms of its functioning are revealed, its significance in the construction of the author’s self-description model and the concept of Russian reality are determined. The article also clarifies the concept of “the Apostolic text”, denotes its specific content in theological and literary aspects. Typical for the Apostolic discourse images and motives (teacher and disciple, preacher, brotherhood, etc.), doctrinal provisions, style are actualized in the content and structure of the final book of Gogol. The Apostolic text, acting as the core of the biblical semiosphere in the book of Gogol , as a rule, is interpreted by Gogol in the context of the old and new Testament books, which emphasizes the closeness of the writer’s thinking of the patristic tradition, and also creates complex allusive connections and a multi-level system of communication in the narrative.
Nikolay Gogol, the Apostolic text, reception, allusion, biblical semiosphere, Christian axiology, universal prose, patristic tradition
Vinogradov I.A. “Superfluous Men” of Russian Literature: New in the School Topic
A new approach to the study of the readerʼs, “school” topic of “superfluous men” in Russian literature is proposed. The principle material in rethinking this topic is the work of Nikolay Gogol. Traditionally, in the research studies, Gogol’s numerous writerʼs merits underline the important contribution that he made, following Alexander Pushkin, to the development of the theme of the “little”, destitute person. However, ideological obstacles diverted the attention of critics and subsequent researchers from the fact that the theme of the “little man” in Gogol’s work is the only one of the constituent parts of the much wider theme of the “superfluous” oppositional man – one of representatives of the extensive Gogol’s gallery of “dead souls”. Thus, an extremely important link was missed in the history of Russian literature. Although the term “superfluous man” itself appeared later (Gogol himself called this type “an aggrieved person”), however, as the very content of Gogol’s creativity testifies, this theme for the writer is, without exaggeration, one of the most “central” and key ones. According to Gogol’s point of view, the solution to the problem of a “superfluous man” is not to change the political system of society, but the spiritual and professional growth of each of its members.
Nikolay Gogol, Alexander Pushkin, Vissarion Belinsky, biography, creativity, interpretation, hermeneutics, autobiographic approach, hero typology, “superfluous men”, controversy, social ideology, spiritual heritage
Voropaev V.A. Where and When Gogol was Born: Returning to the Question
The article clarifies the date and place of birth of Nikolay Gogol. It is believed that he was born in the fligel of M.Ya. Trakhimovsky, the famous Ukrainian philanthropist, who helped M.I. Gogol-Yanovskaya during childbirth. In fact, Gogol was born in the house of a Generalʼs wife E.I. Dmitrieva, who became the godmother of the newborn. This is evidenced by a friend and countryman of Nikolay Gogol M.A. Maksimovich and S.N. Danilevskaya (nee Bykova), the great-niece of the writer. Besides, there is every reason to consider the date of Gogol’s birth on March 19, rather than the 20th, as erroneously stated in the church metric book. The irrefutable evidences of Gogol’s relatives (mothers, sisters), close friends, and his biographers remained on this account. If the document conflicts with other facts and is not supported by other evidences, it cannot be considered reliable.
Nikolay Gogol, day and place of birth, church metric books, evidences of contemporaries
Mikhailova M.V. The Multy-Voices Review on Lyubov Kopylovaʼs Novel “A Patch-Blanket” (Moscow, 2018)
The article discusses the different opinions of critics who have reviewed Lyubov Kopylovaʼs novel “A Patch-Blanket”. The space of various notions of critics was formed who look at own way on the image of the main character of the novel, her feminist intentions and even on the very concept “feminism”. The female and male (unfortunately, in the amount of only one!) voices were sounded clearly in the reviews. Also the the way of presenting the material was interesting, unclosing the potentials and diversity of a review genre.
Lyubov Kopylova, feminism, review, book series, autobiographical novel, creativity, pedagogy, ideology
Kirillova S.E. The Principles of Creating a Regional Katoikonymic Dictionary: An Alphabetical Part
The article justifies the idea of creating the dictionary to include the names of Volgograd Region residents, based on the data of modern local media and official Volgograd Internet resources. It covers a number of features concerning work with the material and partially characterizes the interconnection between the edition being developed and the existing dictionaries of a similar type in the Russian lexicography. The general description of the dictionary structure is given, the content of its parts (alphabetic, administrative-territorial, ideographic) is explained. The author considers theoretical bases for creating an alphabetic part of the dictionary in detail. Two variants of the corresponding dictionary entries are described. There are indicated the main issues arising when fixing the regional katoikonymic material in the dictionary and variants to solve them are offered. The article mentions some features of work with illustrative material. It also substantiates the necessity of publishing such reference books, their role in the development of the speech culture of native Russian language speakers and the significance of further work on the regional katoikonymic dictionary.
culture of speech, onomastic lexicography, katoikonyms, language of media, language of a region
Lavrishchev I.V. A. Fet’s Poetry Discoveries in the Context of Artistic Researches of the European Impressionism
The article deals with A. Fet’s creative principles, which are located in the plane of the principles of the art direction, which called “impressionism” in 1874. In the course of a comparative analysis of Fet’s poetry (“Osier”, “Spring rain”, “Bather”, “Bacchante”) and European impressionist’s paintings (K. Monet’s landscapes, A. Renoir’s “Baigneuse” (“Seated bather”), H. Sorolla’s “Bacchante”) elicited some archetypal shapes and motifs for this art direction, the manners of their reconstruction also. Had a shot to catch out the approaches of the world’s reproduction, which the artists felt subconsciously and readers and viewers catch further. The research discovered the paradoxes of a harmonious combination and mutual transitivity of statics and dynamics, which are inherent in the works of Impressionist art. The study raised the question of the antique sculptures (“Maenad” of Skopas) like the potential inspiration on the ideas formation and the formation of the impressionism artistic principles as a paintings as a poetry.
Afanasy Fet, impressionism, impressionist artists, antique sculpture
Lochmelis E.R. The Plot Invariant in Nikolay Karamzin’s Later Prose
The article focuses on the transformation of the plot model from Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s novel “Julie, or New Heloise”. This model was used by Karamzin as the basis of his works, which were created in 1799–1803. Three texts of this period: “A Knight of Our Times”, “My confession”, “The Sensitive and the Cold”, share a common content core, plot constant, or plot invariant. It is proved that the reasons why Karamzin was dealing with such a simple plot scheme as the Rousseauist love triangle were literary as well as autobiographical. Besides, the article analyzes the methods of incorporating life material – facts of Karamzin’s biography which are strikingly similar to Rousseau’s novels – into a literary text’s space. It also examines the specificity of Karamzin’s work with real and fictional prototypes.
Nikolay Karamzin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, invariant, plot, model, composition, transformation, autobiography in prose
Rybka M.S. On Some Certain Phonetic Features of Spanish and Russian Children’s Speech
The article deals with examples of children’s creative word formation. Phonetic features of Spanish and Russian children’s speech are given special attention. An analysis of different phonetic processes in children’s speech and a comparison between them and the standard language are provided. Mistakes made by Spanish and Russian children are not only explained but also compared with each other in order to highlight their frequency. The most widespread phonetic features of children’s speech in Spanish and Russian are: onomatopoeia, epenthesis, substitution, contraction, metathesis, assimilation, and dissimilation. Every one of them is viewed and analyzed separately.
ontolinguistics, phonetic features, word formation, speaking mistakes, occasionalisms, phonetic analogies
Shmulevich N.V. he Pre-War Screen-Versions of Dostoevsky’s Work
Early screen versions of Dostoevsky’s works were not densely connected with the original texts. Dostoevsky himself happened to be an object for achieving various goals and not for serious art reflection. The article investigates peculiarities of screen-versions of Dostoevsky’s works and the mechanism of transformations of the original plots in pre-Revolutionary and pre-Second World War cinema. The information about lost silent films is based on the film press: the film by gone libretto, reviews and critics’ comments.